Robin Nest Log 2021

Robin Nest 2021 – The Last Post

Although the six Robin chicks fledged the nest last Monday it was just the start of a very difficult time for them. Once out of the nest they can’t fly and are dependent on the adults for food.

In the case of my brood the problems started straight away as last Tuesday here was a day of non-stop heavy rain. So keeping warm, dry and fed was particularly challenging. The chicks spent the two days after fledging in the immediate vicinity of the nest box and I’m afraid to say that their presence was noticed by my cats, who suddenly became very interested in the area. At one point I intervened as the cat had one of the chicks in its’ mouth. It was still flapping around and moved it onto higher, and safer ground, but I rather fear it was damaged.

I tried spraying the ground with cat deterrent but this wasn’t very successful so I ended up keeping my cats indoors for a couple of days. I also did my best to avoid the area so as not to unduly stress the birds.

The chicks are really well camouflaged and they were still pretty silent during these first days so as not to attract attention to themselves. The adults though were very vocal. As soon as any threat was spotted they started to call very loudly, I don’t know if this was to alert the chicks or to attract attention of the threat away from the chicks. I guess a mixture of both, but this must be a very draining activity for the adults, who already have a lot on their plate to feed all the different chicks which are now in different locations.

During the rain of Tuesday, one day after fledging I found one of the chicks on the ground, trying to shelter from the rain by my bins.

This seemed to be quite a weak individual, maybe the one which had already been taken by the cat.

The sixth and last chick of the brood hatched one day later than the first five but fledged on the same day. I can therefore imagine that this last chick would have been smaller and weaker than the others and although it made it out of the nest it would surely have been the most vulnerable.

By the end of Tuesday, the day after fledging I had found a dead chick not far from where I photographer the sheltering chick. I don’t know if it was the same but I would guess so.

By the end of the day on Wednesday I stopped hearing and seeing the adults in the vicinity so I think they and the five remaining chicks had managed to move off, hopefully to a more secure environment. The chicks can typically fly, although I guess quite unsteadily, after two days but they will still be dependent on the adults for feeding for several weeks yet. They will still be very vulnerable.

Unfortunately life is tough and the mortality rate of young Robins is huge, only around 25% will live for more than one year. Those that survive the immediate threats, and obviously at least one of my brood immediately succumbed, will then still need to make it through the Winter.

Good luck to each of them.

The nest has remained untouched and empty since fledging. I think that it is now late in the year for another brood but I’ll leave it in place for a while before taking it down for a clean before the Winter. Removing the lice and bugs hiding in the nesting material should make the box a much more attractive nesting proposition, but I would want it back up and in position for the start of December.

Will the Robins use the nest box again? I hope so. I’ve read that only around 57% of robin eggs make it to fledged chicks and in my case this figure was 100%. Despite the cats it did proof a winning location for a nest, hopefully they remember this for next year.

Day 35 – Monday 11/07/21

Weather : Warm with occasional showers.

Notes : Not for the first time with this nature blog I can say that ‘I got it wrong’. I was firmly expecting the Robin chicks to fledge tomorrow, Which would have been 14 days after hatching.

However the happy news is that all six of the chicks successfully fledged from the nest today.

I missed the fledging of the first chick but it I think it left this morning sometime between 7-8 in the morning.

However the second chick left at 09:12 and this time I got the video.

Each chick seemed to spend a little time on the nest ledge before finally deciding to take the plunge, it this case encouraged by the adult.

The chick departures were quite spaced out throughout the day and the next departure was at 12:11, this time seemingly encouraged by one of it’s siblings.

The chicks are launching themselves into the shrubs surrounding the nest box were they will try and remain hidden for the next days. They’ll still be dependent on the adults for food until they can start to fend for themselves.

The fourth chick left the nest at 17:28 and the fifth at 18:09 leaving just one remaining chick, the sixth and smallest. I was unsure if this last one would be big and strong enough to leave today but then at 20:27 this evening it took the plunge.

So all six have successfully left although the operation took most of the day, starting around 7 this morning and the last one leaving more than 12 hours later.

I’ll make one more blog post to wrap up this nest but for now I conclude with a picture of the empty nest at the end of the day today.

Day 34 – Sunday 11/07/21

Weather : Warm, Sunny Day.

Notes : Coming up to the last days for the chicks in the nest and today I saw the first signs that they’re starting to think about leaving.

The adult flies away after feeding and obviously one of the chicks has a flap and is already thinking about following it. Although right now it’s still too early.

I think that the majority of the chicks should be leaving the nest on Tuesday although it will be interesting to see what happens with the sixth one. It was born one day later than the others, I don’t know if this means that it will stay a day longer on the nest, creating feeding complications for the hard working parents. If if does leave with the others it will be a little weaker and more at risk.

The other news of the day is that my cats have started to pay a little more attention to the area around the nest. It’s interesting to see how low the chicks hunker down, they know there is danger around, but also how well their camouflage works.

I’m pretty sure that they can’t get access to the nest, I’ve also made it a little more difficult, but it will increase the risks for the chicks when they first fledge. They will be very unsteady in a new environment and really at maximum risk.

Unfortunately, domestic cats are the number one predator threat for all small songbirds.

However for now all is well in the nest as shown by the end of day photo.

Day 33 – Saturday    10/07/21

Weather : Warm, with occasional light showers.

Notes : No great change or seemingly any threats to the nest and both adults continue to supply the food.

Interestingly today I saw a few occasion or the adults bringing in what looks like insect grubs.

They’re quite big but the chicks manage to get them down and I assume that they are absolutely packed with nutrients. I think the adults must of come across a rich source of them as for a period it seemed to be the main food coming in.

Final shot from the nest today.

Day 32 – Friday 09/07/21

Weather : Cool and Overcast.

Notes : Something I haven’t mentioned before but which is striking is that the activity in the nest happens in absolute silence. For a long time I thought it was likely a problem with my recording equipment, but I’m now pretty sure that these chicks do not make a squeak!

Again this is quite a contrast to the Great Tit chicks that I filmed last year and which make a lot of noise, particularly as they beg for food from the adults.

As before this contrast and the silence of the Robin chicks, is I guess linked to their concealment strategy. They are doing everything to keep the nest hidden.

As the chicks are now getting bigger keeping it clean is becoming much more of a problem. Especially during the night it’s easy to see lots of insects moving around the nest. One of the principal attractions is the Poo, which during the night tends to accumulate.

This creates a challenge for the adults who do their best to keep it clean.

Final shot from the nest, showing six healthy looking chicks.

Day 31 – Thursday 08/07/21

Weather : Generally warm with no rain

Notes : The Robin nest activity is continuing perfectly.

Both adults are still feeding the chicks which are developing fast. In the clip below, after a feed and a poo, the chick has a flap around, showing how far advanced the wings and feathers are.

I’ve been playing around with my video set up and I finally seem to have an improvement in the image quality.

Unfortunately to do so I’ve had to sacrifice the live stream which I’m no longer going to keep active. It’s all a bit of a learning curve.

The nest box condition from this evening is shown below.

Day 29 – Tuesday 06/07/21

Weather : Cool but no rain

Notes : Onwards the chicks go, getting bigger and bigger thanks to the large amount of food coming in, another example below.

The image quality is still not great I’m afraid.

We are now entering the final week as by the normal schedule they should fledge next Tuesday, 14 days after hatching. Still a way to go but so far there have been no signs of alarm and everything is going well. I thought at the start that the sixth chick, which hatched a day later, may be at risk of not making it, but it seems that all of them are on track.

Hopefully they’ll be no nasty surprises round the corner.

The nest box condition from this afternoon is shown below.

Day 28 – Monday 05/07/21

Weather : Warm, overcast but generally dry.

Notes : The chicks seem to be getting bigger by the minute as I’ve watched the nest today. However they are still very small and it’s kind of amazing that they’ll be out of the nest in a week.

Unfortunately I’ve been having some technical problems with the video and the image quality is rather letting me down, so no video clips today.

I’ve been trying to set up a trail camera on to get some exterior shots of the Robins entering and leaving but again no luck. I’m having lots of technical problems.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:30) is shown below.

Day 27 – Sunday 04/07/21

Weather : Warm with occasional heavy rain showers.

Notes : We’re now getting to the ‘business’ end of this nest with just over 1 week to go until the chicks should fledge.

The chicks are still being supplied by both adults and today they have again increased the frequency of the feeding trips. They’ll both be working on a hot pace for the next two weeks. Unfortunately the video quality in this nest box is not great, I can see a Winter upgrade project coming, so it’s quite difficult to distinguish the different insects being provided to the chicks. In the video below there seems to be quite a large grasshopper type insect which the chick takes down remarkably easily.

As from yesterday the Female is no longer sitting on the nest during the night, obviously this additional warmth is no longer required. It means that the adults stay active much later into the evening with feeding going on until they really lose the light around 22:00.

The nest box photo today, taken at 19:30, shows the beaks of all six chicks, waiting for more food.

Day 26 – Saturday 03/07/21

Weather : Warm and dry.

Notes : It’s  becoming much easier to see all of the chicks in the nest and there are clearly Six, all doing well.

Between feeding the adult, I assume the female, spends quite a bit of time perched on the ledge of the nest box. Having a break but giving the chicks plenty of space in the nest.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (20:30) is shown below, the Female sleeping happily on the nest.

Day 25 – Friday 02/07/21

Weather : Warm and dry.

Notes : The chicks are doing well, getting rapidly bigger and it is clear that there are six in the nest.

The parents are bringing in lots of winged insects for food with the occasional caterpillar. I hope that the winged insects include mosquitos, I could do with a bit of natural control on these pests.

The chicks have developed their first feathers which ensures that they can start to regulate their own temperature. The Female therefore doesn’t need to spend so much time on the nest keeping them warm, more time for gathering food enabling the chicks to grow as quickly as possible.

The first feathers give the chicks quite a dark appearance and although it will turn into a slightly lighter colour, they remain brown. They will not develop the famous red breast of the Robin until much later in life, well after they have left the nest.

This is very different from the Great Tits who develope their distinctive Blue colouring as chicks inside the nest.

The reason the Robins don’t do this is because the brown offers better camouflage. The open nest is vulnerable, being brown enables them to blend in much better. Also, because of it’s vulnerability the Robin chicks leave the nest as soon as possible which means before they are capable of flying. So the first days of their life outside the nest is spend hoping around the nearby bushes. At this time, without the possibility to escape from predators by flying, a bit of extra camouflage is a good defense mechanism.

Due to a few technical difficulties I don’t have an image of the box at the end of the day. Tomorrow.

Day 24 – Thursday 01/07/21

Weather : Warm and dry.

Notes : It’s hard to be sure as my video quality is not amazing, but I’m now pretty sure that all six chicks have hatched in the nest. Probably the nearest I’ve got to a positive verification of this is the video below.

This is a big brood for the Robins so they are going to have to work hard to get them all out. This is going to be a lot of feeding in the next two weeks. A good sign is that both adults are actively present and sharing the feeding duties. This increases the survival chances enormously.

It also worth saying that over the last couple of weeks here in Paris we’ve had unseasonably cool and really quite wet weather. Not ideal conditions for the Robins to find food. This seems to have passed now and we’re entering a warmer, drier period, another factor that’ll increase the chances for the Robins.

On nest predator watch there have been no alerts yet and nothing to report. The nest is really well concealed, and the Robins are still very, very discreet. It hasn’t attracted any attention from the Magpies or Jays who I’ve not seen in the vicinity. Also my prowling cats, probably the biggest threat of all seem unaware.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (23:00) is shown below, the Female sleeping happily on the nest.

Day 23 – Wednesday 30/06/21

Weather : Cool, with an occasional showers.

Notes : Rather unfortunately I haven’t had much time to watch the nest activity today. All seems to have gone well with the chicks getting gradually stronger and easier to identify in the nest. A typical feeding experience is shown below with at least 4 chicks clearly visible.

I’ve seen the sixth egg clearly in the nest earlier today and I’m not sure that it has hatched even though it has now disappeared from view. As the hatched chicks get bigger I guess it will get hidden. I assume that there are five active chicks in the nest although this should be easier to see in the coming days.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:00) is shown below, the Female looking in on the nest.

Day 22 – Tuesday 29/06/21

Weather : Cool, with an occasional showers.

Notes : D Day arrived in the Robin nest today and the chicks hatched exactly according to the schedule, 13 days after the start of incubation.

The hatching started this morning, the last time I saw all six eggs present was 08:45, then at 09:19 this happened.

The first egg is hatching and the Female is removing the shell.

The parents were then quickly into the nest to start feeding.

Straight away the next chicks started to hatch.

By the afternoon 5 chicks had hatched out, still quite difficult to identify but definitely there.

Then for the rest of the afternoon both adults got busy feeding the new family.

So a successful day with 5 of the 6 eggs hatching. The sixth egg was actually laid a day after the start of the incubation and therefore it’s not surprising that it hasn’t hatched at the same time as the others. In fact I’m a little doubtful that it will hatch at all. If it does this last chick is certainly going to be the runt of the family and I imagine that survival may be tricky.

So now is the trickiest time for the Robin family. It’s going to be two weeks of intense feeding activity to get the chicks as big as possible before they fledge the nest. They’ll start to get noisy, potentially attracting dangerous predators.

But today has been a good start. The nest box condition at the end of the day (23:00) is shown below, the Female firmly on the nest.

Day 21 – Monday 28/06/21

Weather : Cool, with an occasional showers.

Notes : Still no signs of change today with the Female continuing to incubate the eggs on the nest. It should be nearly time for the eggs to hatch, tomorrow according to my schedule.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (23:00) is shown below.

Day 20 – Sunday 27/06/21

Weather : Cool, with an occasional showers.

Notes : Quiet day in the nest with no noticeably change in activity.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (23:30) is shown below.

Day 19 – Saturday 26/06/21

Weather : Cool, with an occasional shower.

Notes : The female again spent the day incubating the eggs, no particular changes today. I couldn’t resist taking another quick video of the Male feeding the Female.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:30) is shown below.

Day 18 – Friday 25/06/21

Weather : Cool, wet weather.

Notes : No Change in the nest today with business as usual.

According to my records the Robin started incubating on the 16th June, although a 6th egg was laid on the 17th. I believe that the incubation period should be 13 days, so potentially the first chicks may hatch on the 29th June, which is next Tuesday.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (18:30) is shown below.

Day 17 – Thursday 24/06/21

Weather : Cooler weather, overcast.

Notes : The nest is still active and going well with the Female continuing to incubate the 6 eggs. I’ve missed several days from the log as I’ve been rather busy at work but the pattern of the days has been rather repetitive.

The Female is spending all day and all night on the nest incubating the eggs, with only very occassional forays, each of only a few minutes

The Male continues to feed the Female whilst she is on the nest. Typically the visits are very quick but this one seemed to last a bit longer and included a look at the eggs. Checking all was in order.

What I have noticed is that the Robins are not using the bird feeder near to the nest. To encourage birds into the vicinity of the nest, and particularly thinking of Robins, earlier in the year I installed an open bird feeder tray on my garage door. I’ve circled it in the image below.

This is full of dried mealworms, a favourite food for Robins, but the nesting pair don’t appear to be using it at all. I guess it is another element of the strategy to keep the presence of the nest absolutely hidden.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:30) is shown below, the Female asleep on the eggs.

Day 12 – Saturday 19/06/21

Weather : Warm, muggy and overcast with some heavy, thundery rain.

Notes : Some heavy, summer, thundery rain showers today did not seem to adversely affect the Robins in any way. They have continued with exactly the same pattern of the Female spending most of her time on the eggs in the nest with occasionally feeding visits from the Male.

The Female still leaves from time to time, and the end of the day image today was taken around 22:00 during one such absence. The six eggs are still present and correct.

Day 11 – Friday 18/06/21

Weather : Warm but overcast with rain showers.

Notes : No more eggs so it seems the clutch size will remain at 6, which is more than I anticipated. The female has been on the eggs for most of the day with only very occasional trips off.

The Male has again been coming in to feed the Female, something which seems to happen more in the early morning and less as the day goes on.

It is however very difficult to spot as the Male is in and out extremely quickly. I managed to capture one quite nice video of what looks like the Male Robin arriving with a beak full of food, just after the Female had left.

Missed her.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:30) is shown below, the Female asleep on the eggs.

Day 10 – Thursday 17/06/21

Weather : Warm but muggy day, storms brewing.

Notes : Yesterday, after the Robin started incubating I didn’t think that there would be any more eggs but this morning there was a sixth.

So we now have a big brood and the Female has been incubating and sitting on the nest for much of the day. She did leave occasionally, I guess for food but never for more than 20 minutes or so.

The other highlight of the day is that for the first time I’ve seen the Male Robin coming into feed the Female as she sits on the nest.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:30) is shown below.

Day 9 – Wednesday 16/06/21

Weather : Very warm sunny day.

Notes : The Robin nest is doing great, 5 eggs have been laid, the fifth arriving this morning with a first sighting at 08:30.

Today a significant change occurred and the Female Robin, instead of being absent from the nest all day, starting to incubate the eggs. This signifies that no more eggs will be laid, we have a clutch of 5. I’ve read that the incubation should last 13 days, so this would mean the first eggs hatching on the 29th June.

I’m really enjoying watching my first Robins nest and seeing how it’s so different from the Great Tits and Blue Tits I’ve previously watched. I’ve said before that everything is happening much quicker, from nest building to egg laying but it was also interesting the way the Robin has kept away from the nest, keeping it hidden.

All of this illustrates the different strategy of a Robin compared to a Great Tit. The Robin nest is much more vulnerable, because it’s open, hence the speed and secrecy. Why does it nest in the open, or in this case an open nest box? well there are many more places to build a nest if you’re not worried about finding a location with the right sized entrance hole. Because it’s vulnerable, they’re quick and have fewer eggs, with fewer mouths to feed the young will get biiger and be ready to leave the nest much quicker as well. This is why the Robin lays 3-5 eggs compared to 8-12 for a Great Tit.

And if it all goes wrong for the Robin and the nest is lost, as it hasn’t invested a lot of time, it can build another nest and raise another brood. A Robin typically has more broods than the 1 or 2 of the Great Tit which takes its time over its large brood, in its super secure, hole entry, nest site. All the eggs in one basket compared to the nesting guerilla tactics of the Robin.


The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:00) is shown below, the first end-of-day shot with the incubating female present.

Day 8 – Tuesday 15/06/21

Weather : Warm sunny day.

Notes : The first view off the fourth egg was 07:30, before again the Robin stayed on the nest for another hour or so before heading off for the day.

So still the incubation has not started and perhaps there will be a fifth egg tomorrow.

I’ve been doing my best to avoid disturbing the nest or even really entering into the vicinity. I forgot to say though on Sunday I had to ask my neighbour to stop cutting back the ivy hedge which contains the nest. The box is well hidden and protected so I’m not sure it would have disturbed the nest but he’s a terribly nice bloke so stopped anyway.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (23:00) is shown below.

Day 7 – Monday 14/06/21

Weather : Warm sunny day.

Notes : The third egg arrived, this time at 08:15. Still remarkably consistent.

A slight change today however as the Robin then came back to the nest pretty much straight away and sat on the eggs. I thought that perhaps incubation had started, the clutch was completed at 3 eggs, but after around 30 minutes she left. So incubation hadn’t started and perhaps we’ll get at least one more egg.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (18:30) is shown below.

Day 6 – Sunday 13/06/21

Weather : Warm sunny day.

Notes : As predicted, but still good news, the second egg was laid this morning.

 The Robin is very regular in its movements. It arrives in the Nest between 07:30-08:00 in the morning and leaves after laying an egg, yesterday at 08:09 and today 08:21. Very consistent.

Apart from the egg laying moment the Robin is not visiting the nest, I’ve not even seen one in the vicinity. If it wasn’t for the camera in the nest box I would never know that a robin was building a nest and laying eggs. It’s staying well away to ensure that the location of the nest is maintained as secret as possible from potential predators.

It means that until they start incubating, when the female will need to be present in the nest, it is very difficult to spot an active Robin nest. Once the chicks have hatched and the adults are continually bringing in food the presence of the nest will become much more obvious. This will be the period of high risk when the nest is more likely to be predated.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:30) is shown below.

Day 5 – Saturday 12/06/21

Weather : Warm but overcast day.

Notes : The Robin again spent 30 minutes on the nest early this morning at 08:00, this time leaving a present, the first egg.

It’s normal for the Robins to lay their eggs early in the morning and as a typical clutch size is 3-5 eggs, each laid on a separate day, there should normally be additional eggs laid in the next days. Incubation will not start until all eggs are laid so that the first eggs do not develop much faster than the eggs laid last.

One point of surprise for me is that the egg appears to be white but Robin eggs are a light blue, as shown below. I think it must be blue but it is an effect of the camera and lighting making it look white.

The whole process is happening much faster than for the great tit nest I was watching last year. The Robin has laid it’s first egg only 4 days after it started to build the nest, by comparison the great tit laid it’s first egg 15 days after starting to build the nest.

It’s all happening much quicker in the world of the Robin.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (18:30) is shown below.

Day 4 – Friday 11/06/21

Weather : Warm sunny day.

Notes : A few visits to the nest today by the Robin. An especially long visit this morning around 08:00 when it stayed in the nest for around 30 minutes. No real changes to the nest, no additional nest building needed.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (18:30) is shown below.

Day 3 – Thursday 10/06/21

Weather : Warm sunny day.

Notes : The nest building seems to be completed and the Robin has spent less time in the nest today. It has been visiting occasionally throughout the day, each time spending a few minutes in the nest, nuzzling into the nest cup.

During this stage the adults Robins are possible still feeding the previous brood of chicks who, although out of the nest will still be dependent on the parents. The female prepares the next nest, my nest, whilst the male keeps feeding the chicks. When the last brood of chicks are finally independent, they should get on with egg laying in the new nest. I haven’t seen any Robins feeding other chicks in the immediate vicinity, although they may well be in a neighbours garden, out of my sight.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (18:45) is shown below.

Day 2 – Wednesday 09/06/21

Weather : Warm sunny day.

Notes : It’s definitely a Robin building the nest and it was up early and active this morning. It restarted nest building at 06:30 and continued throughout the day, although there were a few gaps where I wondered and hesitated if it was going to come back.

This morning I turned the LED lights on to provide better quality, colour images. I hesitated before doing so as I didn’t want to disturb the bird or put it off in any way, but it didn’t appear to be affected.

I now already have hours of footage such as this of the Robin bringing in nest material.

The nest is located behind a Pine bush and I think a lot of the material coming in, especially at the bottom of the nest are fallen pine needles, so quite coarse. I can however also see some softer moss appearing at the top.

The rather remarkable point is the speed with which the nest has been built. This is day 2 and already it looks complete. My only previous experience of watching nest building so closely was great tits, and for them it took a week to 10 days to construct a nest.

I guess this may be because Robins nest multiple times throughout the Summer and therefore build multiple nests. A great tit pair will probably only nest once, maybe at the maximum twice, but generally speaking they can spend more time over their one precious nest. The Robin, and the nest building is the responsibility of the female, is working to a different time scale.

Over the next days I need to be very careful as they are quite sensitive and may abandon the nest if disturbed. It is quite close to my garage entrance so I’ll be doing my best to give it a wide birth until they are well established.

The nest box condition at the end of the day (18:30) is shown below.

Day 1 – Tuesday 08/06/21

Weather : Warm sunny day.

Notes : I had pretty much given up hope of having a bird nest in one of my boxes this year. Certainly the Great Tit/Blue Tit box, for the first year ever had no occupants and I was sure that it was now too late in the year for these birds that normally only have one brood.

I have drawn a blank again this year with my Swift nest box, although there are plenty of swifts around. As for the open fronted ‘Robin Nest box’, I had tried a new location this year, all wired up with a camera but I had seen no signs of interest. As I also understood that it is a little more difficult to get Robins to use a prepared box, they are quite happy nesting in natural environments.

But, but, but. Never give up hope. I had my cameras off all day and when I turned them back on this evening a nest had started in my ‘Robin Nest Box’. I was very happy indeed.

Just to illustrate the point this morning at 08:00 the box was empty.

Apologies for the low-quality image but I had also turned off the LED lights as I didn’t think that there would be any need.

But by the end of the nest was quite well advanced, something had been busy. I haven’t yet seen the bird but I assume it’s a Robin. It is not impossible that it could be a Dunnock for example, but it is much more likely to be a Robin

The nest box condition at the end of the day (22:00) is shown below.

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